Room 03

Watercolor drawing of Mei Lanfang by Fukuchi Nobuyo 福地信世  (1877-1934).

Source: Waseda University Tsubouchi Memorial Theatre Museum.

What Qi Rushan
齊如山 saw in Paris, 1900

What did Qi see in Paris?

His Harvest from Europe, 1900


Mei Lanfang 梅蘭芳 in the role of the Taoist nun Chen Miaochang, in Peking opera The tale of the Jade hairpin. 

Source: The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts


A Cultural Turning Point: 1900

The Year 1900 was a turning point for the 

arts. With the Paris exhibition, modern trends in painting, sculpture, dance, opera, and writing, which had been developing in Europe in a critique of the preferences of the cultural establishment, became mainstream and even dominant. Eventually, these new trends would affect a young man and his stage art in faraway China, Mei Lanfang. They would stimulate fundamental changes in the Peking Opera he was performing and would make him into a national and international star.

Qi Rushan at the Paris Opera

The leading figure in Peking Opera Reform was 

Qi Rushan 齊如山 (1877 - 1962). Several extended stays as a businessman in Europe between 1908 and 1913 took him to cultural centers such as Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Brussels, and London. This gave him the chance to go “about every day” to the opera and to see the modernist directors, dancers, and actors who now dominated the stage. First among them were the dancer Loïe Fuller and the Ballets Russes dancers under the direction of Sergei Diaghilev (1872 - 1929).

Paris Exposition, view from ground level of the

Eiffel tower with Parisians promenading, 1889.

Source: Wikimedia Commons

Photograph of Qi Rushan, before 1962. 

Source: Wikimedia Commons


Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1909 - 1929) demonstrating the notion of a "total work of art" in which "oriental dance" played a major role.

Loïe Fuller's (1862 - 1928) performances displaying the integration of silk dance with multicolored lighting effects on stage.

Qi Rushan and
Peking Opera Reform

Qi Rushan had spent substantial time in Paris between 1908 and 1913. He used this occasion to see as many operas and ballets as possible, and to travel to other cultural centers in Europe. After his return to China, luck brought him together with the exceptionally gifted young dan actor Mei Lanfang. Mei was interested in reforms that would open the way for “female” dan roles to become the main protagonist. The major transformation brought about by Mei and Qi’s reforms was the introduction of a new aesthetic system that was based on dance. Together they created many new operas with dan in the lead. At the center of these new operas was now dance. Up to the 1910s, Peking opera was a performing art form that excelled in singing and celebrated the voice. Through the introduction of dance, Mei and Qi helped transform Peking opera aesthetic from an emphasis on listening to that of viewing the performance.


The Goddess Spreads Flowers was one of the earliest and signature pieces of the Peking Opera reform pioneered by these two men. It engaged with Sergei Diaghilev’s notion of a “total work of art” that would integrate singing, dancing, music, stage décor, costume, and lighting into a unified choreography as he had done in with his troupe Ballets Russes. More visibly, it engaged with Fuller’s famous silk dance by integrating its dazzling forms and multicolored lighting effects into the dance of The Goddess Spreads Flowers.

Chinese stage design for NY Broadway 49th Street theatre with Mei Lanfang in the role of the Goddess.
Photographed by Florence Vandamm, 1930.
Source: New York Public Library

Changing the Core: Innovations in The Goddess Spreads Flowers

The Goddess Spreads Flowers put a new kind of

Peking opera on stage. This genre had been criticized by the advocates of the need for a “new culture” in China as being wedded to the “feudal” past and dependent on the patronage of the last Chinese dynasty, which had just been forced to abdicate to make place for a republic. 


The Goddess gave the answers with dramatic

innovations: It featured ravishingly beautiful dance pieces at its center although dance had not been part of the Peking Opera repertoire; it marked a transition from ear to the eye as the instrument of audience appreciation; it showed a new performance style with emotional and psychological depth radiating from the dance performance to the smallest gestures; it had a woman as chief protagonist; it filled the normally sparingly furnished stage with décor and props; it came with a new kind of music that was suited to accompany dance; it used the most modern lighting techniques. 

Mei Lanfang in The Goddess Spread Flowers. 1917. Photography. 

Source: Mei Shaowu, ed., Mei Lanfang: A pictorial biography. (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe, 1997). 

The Production of The Goddess Spreads Flowers

It took as long as eight months to

conceptualize these reforms, design ways to realize them, and develop the actual performance. While the performances in Paris clearly had been an inspiration, this did not lead to imitation but released vast creative energies to join the world with the creation of dances that was clearly Chinese. The story of The Goddess Spreads Flowers comes from the Vimalakirti-nirdesa, a Buddhist text. This scene, was the subject of many Chinese paintings since medieval times, called sanhua tu 散花圖 (Image of Spreading Flowers). They showed the goddess floating weightlessly above the disciples. Mei Lanfang saw one of the paintings on this subject at a friend's house and tried to imagine it as a dance.


The Premiere

On December 1 1917, the by now 

long-expected new opera was performed at the Jixiang theater 

吉祥戲園 in Beijing, which had the necessary modern equipment. The house was sold out, it was a major event. There was so much novelty. 

The stage scene of The Goddess Spreads Flowers.

Source: Mei Shaowu, ed., Mei Lanfang: A pictorial biography. (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe, 1997.)

Recording of The Goddess Spreads Flowers.